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Python 3.9 to become the default on 2021-06-01 - 05/05/2021 00:00 GMT

We are planning to switch the default Python target of Gentoo systems
on 2021-06-01, from Python 3.8 to Python 3.9.  If you have not changed
the values of PYTHON_TARGETS or PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET, the change will
have immediate effect on your system and the package manager will try
to switch automatically on the next upgrade following the change.

If you did change the values, prefer a safer approach or have problems
with the update, read on.

Please note that the default upgrade method switches packages to the new
Python versions as they are rebuilt.  This means that all interdependent
packages have to support the new version for the upgrade to proceed,
and that some programs may temporarily fail to find their dependencies
throughout the upgrade (although programs that are already started
are unlikely to be affected).


If you have PYTHON_TARGETS or PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET declared
in make.conf, please remove these declarations as they will interfere
with the package.use samples provided below.  Using make.conf for Python
targets is discouraged as it prevents package defaults from applying
when necessary.  This news item assumes using /etc/portage/package.use
or your package manager's equivalent file for configuration.


At this point, you have a few configuration options to choose from:

1. If you wish Python upgrades to apply automatically, you can remove
   PYTHON_TARGETS and PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET declarations.  When
   the defaults change, your package manager should handle the upgrade
   automatically.  However, you may still need to run the update
   commands if any problems arise.

2. If you wish to defer the upgrade for the time being, you can
   explicitly set the old values in package.use.

3. If you wish to force the upgrade earlier, you can explicitly set
   the new values and run the upgrade commands.

4. If you wish to use a safer approach (i.e. less likely to temporarily
   break packages during the upgrade), you can perform a multi-step
   upgrade as outlined below.

5. Finally, you can use an arbitrary combination of PYTHON_TARGETS
   and PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET.


Deferring the upgrade
=====================
To defer the upgrade, explicitly set the old targets:

    */* PYTHON_TARGETS: -* python3_8
    */* PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET: -* python3_8

This will enforce Python 3.8 and block any future updates.  However,
please note that this solution will only be suitable for a few more
months and you will eventually need to perform the migration.


Forcing the upgrade
===================
To force the upgrade earlier, explicitly set Python 3.9 targets:

    */* PYTHON_TARGETS: -* python3_9
    */* PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET: -* python3_9

However, it is important to remember to remove this after the defaults
change, as it will interfere with the automatic switch to the next
Python version in the future.


Safer upgrade procedure
=======================
A safer approach is to add Python 3.9 support to your system first,
and only then remove Python 3.8.  However, note that involves two
rebuilds of all the affected packages, so it will take noticeably
longer.

First, enable both Python 3.8 and Python 3.9, and then run the upgrade
commands:

    */* PYTHON_TARGETS: -* python3_8 python3_9
    */* PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET: -* python3_8

Then switch PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET and run a second batch of upgrades:

    */* PYTHON_TARGETS: -* python3_8 python3_9
    */* PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET: -* python3_9

Finally, switch to the final version and upgrade:

    */* PYTHON_TARGETS: -* python3_9
    */* PYTHON_SINGLE_TARGET: -* python3_9

You may wish to remove the target overrides after the defaults switch.
Alternatively, you can keep them to block the next automatic upgrade
to Python 3.10, and upgrade manually then.


Upgrade commands
================
The Python 3.8 cleanup requires that Python 3.8 is removed from complete
dependency trees in batch.  If some of the installed packages using
an older Python version are not triaged for the upgrade, the package
manager will throw dependency conflicts.  This makes it important that
the upgrade is carried via a --deep --changed-use @world upgrade,
as well as that any stray packages are removed prior to it, e.g.:

    emerge --depclean
    emerge -1vUD @world
    emerge --depclean


Posted By: Michał Górny

Exim>=4.94 transports: tainted not permitted - 04/05/2021 00:00 GMT

The Message Transfer Agent Exim disallows tainted variables in transport
configurations since version 4.94.  Existing exim.conf configurations
in /etc/exim need to be reviewed for breakage prior to upgrading to
 >=mail-mta/exim-4.94 to avoid error conditions at runtime.

Since the release of Exim-4.94, transports refuse to use tainted data in
constructing a delivery location.  If you use this in your transports,
your configuration will break, causing errors and possible downtime.

Particularly, the use of $local_part in any transport, should likely be
updated with $local_part_data.  Check your local_delivery transport,
which historically used $local_part.

Unfortunately there is not much documentation on "tainted" data for
Exim[1], and to resolve this, non-official sources need to be used, such
as [2] and [3].


[1] https://lists.exim.org/lurker/message/20201109.222746.24ea3904.en.html
[2] https://mox.sh/sysadmin/tainted-filename-errors-in-exim-4.94/
[3] https://jimbobmcgee.wordpress.com/2020/07/29/de-tainting-exim-configuration-variables/


Posted By: Fabian Groffen

New OpenRC Display Manager Initializer Scripts - 30/01/2021 00:00 GMT

There has been a refactoring of the old 'xdm' init script into a new
script called 'display-manager', provided by a new package that will
be introduced by your @world update routine as a dependency of
x11-base/xorg-server-1.20.10-r1:

	gui-libs/display-manager-init

The package is now in ~arch and will be available to stable users
starting with 2nd March 2021. [1]

Its purpose is to provide the same startup mechanism for your chosen
display manager (like GDM, SDDM etc. [2]) as xdm did previously, but
without depending on x11-base/xorg-server. This is necessary to
support new DMs that no longer depend on Xorg.

Existing settings from /etc/conf.d/xdm will be migrated to new
/etc/conf.d/display-manager config, however after installation it is
vital not to forget to run either `etc-update` or `dispatch-conf`.
Afterwards check that /etc/conf.d/display-manager contains the
desired value for DISPLAYMANAGER.

The old 'xdm' init script is no longer supported and henceforth
removed from x11-base/xorg-server-1.20.10-r1, so it is imperative that
you switch from xdm to display-manager service in default runlevel:

	# rc-update del xdm default
	# rc-update add display-manager default

The changes are complete and on the next reboot, 'display-manager'
will start your chosen DM.

To switch to the new script without rebooting, run the following
commands in a tty:

	# rc-service xdm stop
	# rc-service display-manager start

Finally, the following action is necessary *ONLY* if you are running
	a) a DM (and rest of system) without Xorg
	b) a DM from an overlay, to make sure display-manager persists

	# emerge --noreplace gui-libs/display-manager-init


[1] To make this change *now*, and proceed with this news item already,
stable users would need to add the following entries to
/etc/portage/package.accept_keywords [3] and update @world:

	~sys-apps/sysvinit-2.98
	~x11-apps/xinit-1.4.1
	~x11-base/xorg-server-1.20.10
	~gui-libs/display-manager-init-1.0

[2] https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki/Display_manager
[3] https://wiki.gentoo.org/wiki//etc/portage/package.accept_keywords


Posted By: Andreas Sturmlechner

Python preference to follow PYTHON_TARGETS - 30/01/2021 00:00 GMT

On 2021-02-01 stable users will switch to a new method of updating
the preferred Python versions that employs the configuration update
mechanism in order to follow PYTHON_TARGETS.  We will also deprecate
app-eselect/eselect-python, and it will stop being installed by default
after 2021-07-01.  If you wish to use the newest Python version present
in your PYTHON_TARGETS, you only have to accept configuration changes.
If you wish to customize the behavior, read on.

Since 2017, /usr/bin/python and the related non-versioned symlinks
are wrapped through dev-lang/python-exec.  The list of preferred Python
implementations is stored in /etc/python-exec/python-exec.conf and/or
per-program /etc/python-exec/.conf configuration files.
To preserve backwards compatibility, app-eselect/eselect-python remained
a wrapper that updated this file.

However, this mechanism alone has proven inconvenient to end users who
had to update python-exec.conf whenever the default PYTHON_TARGETS
changed.  Thanks to the fallback logic, this was not a major problem
for software installed via Gentoo packages that always ensure that
a supported implementation is used.  However, users have reported that
whenever the preference for /usr/bin/python mismatched their
PYTHON_TARGETS, their custom scripts would break due to unsatisfied
dependencies.  This does not follow the principle of least surprise.

For this reason, we have decided to change the default python-exec
configuration to match PYTHON_TARGETS by default, in the eclass
preference order, that is from the newest CPython version to oldest,
with alternative Python implementations coming afterwards.  This change
will be propagated via the configuration protection mechanism whenever
dev-lang/python-exec-conf is installed or rebuilt due to PYTHON_TARGETS
changes.  This will permit the users to interactively confirm
the updates.

If the new default is not correct for you, please use your preferred
configuration update tool to discard or edit the new configuration file.

Furthermore, dev-lang/python will no longer attempt to automatically
update the Python interpreter preference, or pull in eselect-python
automatically.  If you wish to continue using it, please install/record
it explicitly to ensure that it is not unmerged, e.g.:

    emerge -n app-eselect/eselect-python


Posted By: Michał Górny

LibreSSL support discontinued - 05/01/2021 00:00 GMT

Starting 2021-02-01, Gentoo will discontinue supporting
dev-libs/libressl as an alternative to dev-libs/openssl.  While it will
still be possible for expert users to use LibreSSL on their systems,
we are only going to provide support for OpenSSL-based systems.  Most
importantly, we are no longer going to maintain downstream patches for
LibreSSL support -- it will rely on either package upstreams merging
such patches themselves, or LibreSSL upstream finally working towards
better OpenSSL compatibility.

On 2021-02-01, we will mask the relevant USE flags and packages.  If you
wish to continue using LibreSSL, you will be able to undo these masks
for the time being.  However, as packages drop patching for LibreSSL
and the library is eventually removed from ::gentoo, it will become
necessary to use the user-maintained LibreSSL overlay [1].  As long-term
support for LibreSSL is not guaranteed, we recommend switching
to OpenSSL instead.  More information on removal can be found
on the relevant bug [2].

To switch before the aforementioned date, remove 'libressl' from your
USE flags and CURL_SSL targets.  Afterwards, it is recommended to
prefetch all the necessary distfiles before proceeding with the system
upgrade, in case wget(1) becomes broken in the process:

    emerge --fetchonly dev-libs/openssl net-misc/wget
    emerge --fetchonly --deep --changed-use @world

A --changed-use @world upgrade should automatically cause LibreSSL
to be replaced by OpenSSL, and all affected packages to be rebuilt:

    emerge --deselect dev-libs/libressl
    emerge --changed-use --deep @world


LibreSSL has been forked off OpenSSL in 2014 to address a number of
problems with the original package.  However, since then OpenSSL
development gained speed and the original reasons for the fork no longer
apply.  Furthermore, LibreSSL started to repeatedly fall behind
and cause growing compatibility problems.  While initially these
problems were related to packages using old/insecure OpenSSL APIs, today
they are mostly related to LibreSSL missing newer OpenSSL APIs
(yet declaring false compatibility with newer OpenSSL versions).

With the little testing it gets, our developers and users had to put
a significant effort into fixing upstream packages.  In some cases
(e.g. Qt), upstream has explicitly refused to support LibreSSL, forcing
us to maintain the patches forever.  This in turn means that
security fixes, regular version bumps or end-user system upgrades are
often delayed because of necessary LibreSSL patching.  What is even
worse, major runtime issues managed to sneak in that broke production
systems running LibreSSL in the past.

To the best of our knowledge, the only benefit LibreSSL has over OpenSSL
right now is the additional libtls library.  For this reason, we have
packaged dev-libs/libretls which is a port of this library that links
to OpenSSL.

All these issues considered, we came to the conclusion that OpenSSL
should remain the only supported production option for Gentoo systems.
While the flexibility of Gentoo should make it possible to keep using
LibreSSL going forward, the effort necessary to provide first-class
official support for LibreSSL has proven to outweigh the benefit.

[1] https://gitweb.gentoo.org/repo/proj/libressl.git/tree/README.md
[2] https://bugs.gentoo.org/762847


Posted By: Michał Górny

Most stable hppa keywords removed - 26/12/2020 00:00 GMT

The Gentoo/HPPA team no longer thinks that the time invested in
package stabilization is warranted for the small number of users on
HPPA. As a result, we will drop most "hppa" keywords to "~hppa" on
2020-12-31. Around 850 packages will retain their stable keywords.

Users need not make any changes to their systems—other than perhaps
adding some entries to their package.accept_keywords file. The
Gentoo/HPPA team has no plans to remove support for the architecture.


Posted By: Matt Turner

kubernetes Split Packages Returning - 06/10/2020 00:00 GMT

In order to fix the ability to upgrade kubernetes components separately,
the kubernetes split packages are returning [1].

Starting with kubernetes 1.17.12, 1.18.9 and 1.19.2, you will need to
install the following packages in the appropriate configuration for
your cluster.

sys-cluster/kubeadm
sys-cluster/kube-apiserver
sys-cluster/kube-controller-manager
sys-cluster/kubectl
sys-cluster/kubelet
sys-cluster/kube-proxy
sys-cluster/kube-scheduler

Once the split packages are stabilized, sys-cluster/kubernetes will be
masked and removed.

[1] https://bugs.gentoo.org/741572


Posted By: William Hubbs

Python 2.7 cleanup is progressing - 28/09/2020 00:00 GMT

Python 2.7 has reached its end-of-life by 2019-12-31, and many projects
have removed Python 2 support since.  During the last few months we have
been working hard to migrate Gentoo to Python 3, and we have finally
reached the point making it possible for the vast majority of our users
to run a system free of Python 2.7 packages (except for the interpreter
itself).

The few remaining high profile packages (e.g. dev-python/cython)
are preserving Python 2.7 only for a very few uncommon packages.
For this reason, we have decided to create new revisions of them having
Python 2.7 removed.  If you do not need Python 2.7 there, your package
manager should upgrade these packages to the new revisions.

Please note that you may need to manually uninstall any Python 2.7
packages installed from third-party repositories and/or run `emerge
--depclean` first to remove orphan packages.  The recommended process
for Portage users is:

    emerge --depclean
    emerge -vDuU @world
    emerge --depclean

Please note that the Python 2.7 interpreter (without additional Python
packages) remains necessary to build a few high profile packages,
in particular Chromium, Mozilla software and PyPy.  If you build either
of these packages from source, you will not be able to permanently
remove Python 2.7 from your system.

We are going to preserve CPython 2.7 (and PyPy2.7) for as long
as necessary and provide security fixes to the best of our ability.
However, please note that we are not able to dedicate resources to
auditing Python 2.7's code and with little community interest in that,
it should be considered potentially vulnerable.

If your projects still rely on Python 2.7, we would like to once again
encourage you to migrate them to Python 3.  However, if you really need
to run them, we suggest using a virtualenv.  To create a new Python 2.7
environment, install dev-python/virtualenv and use the following option:

    virtualenv -p /usr/bin/python2.7 ...

To create a PyPy2.7 environment:

    virtualenv -p /usr/bin/pypy ...

Modern versions of pip should be able to automatically select older
versions of packages that still support Python 2.7.  Please note that
these versions are generally no longer supported.  They can be buggy,
vulnerable or simply incompatible with one another.

Please do not forget to add dev-lang/python:2.7 to your @world set
or it may get depcleaned once all package dependencies are gone.


Posted By: Michał Górny

riscv multilib profile is going away - 06/09/2020 00:00 GMT

The Gentoo RISC-V team is discontinuing the riscv64 multilib stages and
profile. The main reason for this is that with the upcoming introduction
of riscv32 a multilib stage would contain both 32bit and 64bit binaries,
and so far no hardware exists that is able to run both and thus update
the stage or installation (unless you use qemu).

Please switch to the rv64gc/lp64d profile. This is done by
* selecting default/linux/riscv/17.0/rv64gc/lp64d with eselect profile
* rebuilding gcc
    emerge -1 sys-devel/gcc
* and then rebuilding your system
    emerge -ev @world

The default/linux/riscv/17.0/rv64gc profile will stop functioning soon.


Posted By: Andreas K. Hüttel

xorg-server dropping default suid - 24/06/2020 00:00 GMT

Starting 2020-07-15, stable keyworded x11-base/xorg-server will default
to using the logind interface instead of suid by default. resulting in
better security by default through running the server as a regular user
instead of root. However, this will require our users to use a logind
provider such as elogind or systemd. The systemd users and those who are
not using systemd but use desktop profiles can stop reading here, as
they already have a logind provider enabled.

Others, who have neither systemd or desktop profiles enabled will be
required to globally enable 'elogind' USE flag and update the system

    # emerge --newuse @world

Afterwards, one will need to re-login, so the PAM can assign a seat. One
can confirm that a seat has been assigned upon login by running:

    $ loginctl user-status

Users who do not wish to use logind interface or have rare hardware that
does not use KMS and because of that, require root privileges to
operate, can manually re-enable 'suid' and disable 'elogind' USE flags
in order to preserve the previous behavior. However, please note that
this is heavily discouraged to run X server as root due to security
reasons. The 'suid' USE flag will remain as optional opt-in for the need
of legacy hardware.


Posted By: Piotr Karbowski